Genotype-by-environment interactions for grain yield of Valencia groundnut genotypes in East and Southern Africa

  • Journal: Australian Journal of Crop Science
  • Authors: P. Okori1*, H. Charlie1, J. Mwololo1, W. Munthali, L. Kachulu1, E. Monyo, A. Muitia, O. Mponda, D. Kalule-Okello, L. Makweti, and M. Siambi
  • Publication Type: Article
  • Date:
  • Keywords: Adaptation, AMMI, Breeding, Stability, Multi-environment trials, Discrimination ability, Representativeness. Abbreviations: AEA_average environment axis , AMMI_additive main effects and multiplicative interaction, ANOVA_analysis of variance, E_environment, G_genotype, GGE_genotype and genotype × environment interaction, ICRISAT_International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, ICGV-SM_ICRISAT groundnut variety selected in Malawi, IPCA_interaction principal component analysis, Mals_meters above sea level, PCA_principal component analysis, Temp min_minimum temperature Temp Max_maximum temperature , V_varieties


Grain yield is a quantitatively inherited trait in groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) and subject to genotype by environment interactions. Groundnut varieties show wide variation in grain yield across different agro-ecologies. The objectives of this study were to evaluate Valencia groundnut genotypes for yield stability and classify environments to devise appropriate breeding strategies. Seventeen multi-location trials were conducted in six countries, viz., Malawi, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Zambia, from 2013 to 2016. The experiments were laid out following a resolvable incomplete block design, with two replications at each location (hereafter referred to as ‘environments’) using 14 test lines and two standard checks. The additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis was conducted. Variation attributable to environments, genotypes and genotype × environment interaction for grain yield was highly significant (P<0.001). Genotype, environment and genotype × environment interactions accounted for 7%, 53 % and 40% of the total sum of squares respectively. Superior-performing genotypes possessing high to moderate adaptability and stability levels included ICGV-SM 0154, ICGV-SM 07539, ICGV-SM 07536, ICGV-SM 7501, ICGV-SM 99568 and ICGV SM 07520. Nachingwea 2013 in Tanzania, Nakabango 2014 in Uganda and Chitedze 2015 in Malawi were the most representative and discriminative environments. Considering the implications of interactions for Valencia groundnut breeding in East and Southern Africa we propose that different varieties should be targeted for production in different environments and at the same time used for breeding in specific environments

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