Composition and variation of fatty acids among groundnut cultivars in Uganda

  • Journal: African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 291 - 299
  • Authors: E. ACHOLA, P. TUKAMUHABWA, J.ADRIKO, R. EDEMA, S.E. MWALE, P. GIBSON, P. NAVEEN, V. OKUL, D. MICHAEL and D.K. OKELLO
  • Publication Type: Article
  • Date:
  • Keywords: Arachis hypogaea, gas chromatography, linoleic, oleic
  • 51 Views

Abstract:

Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) contain approximately 44-56% oil made up of fatty acids. Oleic and linoleic
acids comprise about 80% of fatty acids in groundnuts. Groundnuts with >80% oleic are beneficial health-wise
and also improve groundnut quality, flavour, and extended shelf-life, which is beneficial to traders. In Uganda,
however, little is known about the fatty acids content of commercially available cultivars. This study was
undertaken to determine the fatty acid composition of the most recently released commercially available groundnut
cultivars in Uganda. Eleven groundnut genotypes were profiled for different fatty acids using gas chromatography
(GC). Data were recorded in percentages from chromatographs and totaled up to about 100%. Oleic to linoleic
ratios (O/L) and iodine values were calculated from fatty acid data. Groundnut genotypes tested differed significantly
(P<0.05) in oleic, linoleic, palmitic, behenic, gadoleic, arachidic and palmitoleic acids. Oleic acid was highest in
Lot 197 line, and linoleic acid was lowest in the same line. Oleic acid was lowest in Serenut 7 (43.19%) and linoleic
acid was highest in the same line (33.45%). The lowest iodine value was observed in 197 (84.14); and the highest
in Serenut 9T (96.59). Significant correlations (P<0.001) were observed between most of the fatty acids, except
between arachidic versus gadoleic, stearic and gamma linoleic.

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